Tmre tetramethylrhodamine ethyl ester, perchlorate and tmrm 70017 are preferred dyes for quantitative measurements of membrane potentials using. Oct 12, 2016 for transplantation of in vitrocultured lthscs, the progeny of 200 lthscs cultured for 5 days were facssorted based on their tmrm signal tmrm low or tmrm high and transplanted together with. Tmrm assay kit mitochondrial membrane potential ab228569 is designed to quantify changes in mitochondrial membrane potential in living cells using flow cytometry, fluorescence plate reader, or fluorescence microscopy. Mitochondrial staining allows robust elimination of. Rhodamine 123 is specifi c for mitochondria labeling, but tmre, tmrm, and jc1 dyes labels endoplasmic reticulum to some extent chazotte 2009. Pink1 lossoffunction mutations affect mitochondrial. Tetramethylrhodamine, methyl ester tmrm is a cellpermeant dye that accumulates in active mitochondria with intact membrane potentials. When accumulated in a negatively charge polarized mitochondria, tmre fluoresces orange.
Measurement of mitochondrial membrane potential using. Monitoring mitochondrial membrane potential with orflos moxi go systems next generation flow cytometers summary in this application note, we provide a protocol and data showing how the moxi go system 532nm configuration can easily be implemented towards the measurement of mitochondrial membrane potential using the tmre dye. B dna histograms of edulabeling of jurkat cells treated with 100 nm tmre for different time periods 2, 4, 6 and 8 hr in comparison with untreated cells. Electrophoretic mobility is a heterogeneous surface property reflective of mitochondrial surface composition and morphology, which could be used as a basis for separation of mitochondrial. Eruslanov e, kusmartsev s 2010 identification of ros using oxidized dcfda and flowcytometry. If the cells are healthy and have functioning mitochondria, the signal will be bright. In addition, it can be used in experiments in which multiple labeling diminishes mitochondrial function. Although mitotracker green fm dye can selectively stain mitochondria both in live cells and in cells that have been fixed, the dye is not well retained after cell permeabilization. For example, tmrm inhibits the etc less, and binds mitochondria less than either rhod123 or tmre in that order, although in practice, at the nonquenching 0. M doses used experimentally, these factors will be negligible for all of these probes, with the possible exception of inhibition of the etc. Previously, we reported that tmrm effectively labeled mitochondria of neurons deep within mouse brain slices. Specification of haematopoietic stem cell fate via modulation. Treating cells with fccp eliminates mitochondrial membrane potential and tmre staining.
Stain cells in fresh, prewarmed cell culture media or desired stain buffer with 20200 nm bd pharmingen mitostatus. Aug 01, 2011 labeling mitochondria with mitotracker dyes. Eukaryote cells, meaning animal cells more advanced organisms are the type of cells that have them, and they need mitochondria to function properly. Mitochondrial health is an indicator of overall cell health. Visualizing mitochondrial form and function within the. Get access of 100s of videos, thousands of e notes and tons of printables for kindergarten to grade12, a. Labeling mitochondria with tmrm or tmre introduction tmrm tetramethylrhodamine methyl ester or the related tmre tetramethylrhodamine ethyl ester is extensively used for labeling and measuring the membrane potential and the function of mitochondria in living cells. As apoptosis occurs and the mitochondrial membrane potential collapses, the dyes disperse throughout the cell and the fluorescence either diminishes mitopt tmre and tmrm kits or changes color mitopt jc1 kit. Introduction membranepotentialdependent dyes such as rhodamine 123, tetramethylrhodamine methyl ester tmrm, and tetramethylrhodamine ethyl ester tmre are useful as long as the mitochondrion maintains its negative membrane potential. Compartmentation of mitochondrial and oxidative metabolism in growing hair follicles.
Bd pharmingen mitostatus tmre labeling of suspended cells for flow cytometric analysis 1. Tmre is suitable for the labeling of mitochondria in live cells and is not compatible with fixation. A dna histograms of edulabeling of tmre high and tmre low subpopulations of jurkat cells. Replace medium with 100l 1 x tmre solution per well 5.
This protocol describes the ability to monitor mitochondria calcium accumulation and m simultaneously with fluo4, am and tmrm. When accumulated in a negatively charge polarized mitochondria, tmrm fluoresces orange. Tmrm and tmre are less likely to bind to mitochondrial proteins and to quench, thus making them more wellbehaved dyes. Examining intracellular organelle function using fluorescent. Their low membrane partition coefficient allows them to preferentially stain specifically polarized mitochondria rather than other intracellular organelles 29.
These two particular rhodamine esters stain mitochondria orange in fluorescence. Our laboratory has demonstrated the critical role of mitochondria in the progression of hyperglycemiamediated neuronal damage vincent and feldman 2004. Several fluorescent probes rhodamine 123, tmrm, tmre, jc1 can be used to determine m in a variety of cell types, and many fluorescence indicators dihydroethidium, dihydrorhodamine 123, h 2 dcfda can be used to determine ros. May be used as potentiometric dyes for the assessment of m 9,15. Visualizing mitochondrial form and function within the cell. Prodium iodide pi, viability without the need for compensation. Jun 28, 2018 for example, tmrm inhibits the etc less, and binds mitochondria less than either rhod123 or tmre in that order, although in practice, at the nonquenching 0. Moreover, because of their reduced hydrophobic character, these probes exhibit potentialindependent binding. During the staining process it is critical to incubate the cells at room temperature to optimize the effectiveness of fluo4, am in detecting mitochondrial calcium. Healthy mitochondria exhibit a difference in electrical potential across the lipid bilayer that surrounds them, and some fluorescent dyes will accumulate inside mitochondria as long as this potential difference is maintained. Jurkat cells were stained with tmre following the labeling protocol listed below. When mitochondrial membrane potential collapses in apoptotic or metabolically stressed cells, tmre reagent is dispersed through the cell cytosol and. Specification of haematopoietic stem cell fate via.
After treatment with tmre, the adherent cells should be washed with pbs, trypsinized and brought to single cell suspendion. The mechanism of mitochondrial membrane potential retention. Mitochondrial membrane potential probes and the proton. Simultaneous measurement of individual mitochondrial. Tetramethylrhodamine, ethyl ester tmre is a cell permeable, positively charged redorange dye that accumulates in active mitochondria due to their relative negative charge. Flow cytometry works well with a wider range of tmre concentrations than other applications, but empirical determination of the optimal tmre concentration for your cell line may be required. Upon loss of the mitochondrial membrane potential, tmrm accumulation ceases and the signal dims or disappears. For adherent cells prepare 1 x tmre in cell culture medium. Mitochondrial membrane potential varies, depending on energy demand, subcellular location, and morphology and is commonly used as an indicator of mitochondrial functional status. Use of micromolar concentration of dye, which was required to get sufficient staining for twophoton imaging, resulted in typical fluctuations of. The relationship is investigated between mitochondrial membrane potential m, respiration and cytochrome c cyt c release in single neural bcl2 transfected cells gt17bcl2 or gt17puro. Madreitersokolowski1,2, jeta ramadanimuja1, gabriela ziomek1, sandra burgstaller1, helmut bischof1, zhanat koshenov1, benjamin gottschalk1, roland malli1,3 and wolfgang f. Effect of tmrm, tmre, and r123 on mitochondrial respiration.
Modulation of the fissionfusion balance is important in. Control cells show mitochondria remain intact with calcein unable to enter arrows show voids in calcein where tmrm remains inside polarized mitochondria, whereas calcein gains entry to mitochondria on mpt after ra. Mitochondrial labeling thermo fisher scientific uk. Recent technological developments in mitochondrial imaging have led to a more precise and.
Graier1,3 1 gottfried schatz research center, molecular biology and biochemistry, medical university of. This is an online quiz called mitochondria labeling. Tmre tetramethylrhodamine ethyl ester, perchlorate and tmrm are preferred dyes for quantitative measurements of membrane potentials using the nernst equation. Tetramethylrhodamine methyl ester tmrm is a fluorescent dye used to study mitochondrial function in living cells. Recent technological developments in mitochondrial imaging have led to a more precise and comprehensive. If the cells are healthy and have functioning mitochondria, the signal is bright. Oxygen consumption was monitored as described in methods. There is a printable worksheet available for download here so you can take the quiz with pen and paper. Mitotracker and mitofluor mitochondrionselective probes. Cytometric assessment of mitochondria using fluorescent. Inactive or depolarized mitochondria have decreased membrane potential and thus fail to retain the tmre dye and as a result show low fluorescence signal.
The accumulation of tetramethylrhodamine methyl and ethyl esters tmrm, t668. Detect mitochondrial depolarization with the mitopt tmre assay. Dimethyl sulfoxide damages mitochondrial integrity and. Tmre tetramethylrhodamine ethyl ester, perchlorate and tmrm 70017 are preferred dyes for quantitative measurements of membrane potentials using the nernst equation. Mitofluor dyes s nonfixable mitochondrionselective probes.
Changes in mitochondrial function resulting from synaptic. Simultaneous measurement of mitochondrial calcium and. Compartmentation of mitochondrial and oxidative metabolism in. Tmre, t669 in mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum has also been shown to be driven by their membrane potential slowresponse probessection 22. Tetramethylrhodamine tmrm thermo fisher scientific.
The mitopt tmrm assay detects mitochondrial membrane depolarization utilizing the fluorescent dye tmrm. Tmretmrm mitochondrial potential 650nmlp filtered pmt. Tmrm tetramethylrhodamine methyl ester or the related tmre tetramethylrhodamine ethyl ester is extensively used for labeling and measuring the membrane potential and the function of mitochondria in living cells. For transplantation of in vitrocultured lthscs, the progeny of 200 lthscs cultured for 5 days were facssorted based on their tmrm signal tmrm low or tmrm high and transplanted together with. Realtime imaging of dy m with tetramethylrhodamine methyl ester tmrm further. Detect mitochondrial depolarization with the mitopt tmrm assay. Mitochondrial biogenesis allows neurons to meet changing energy loads and to redistribute mitochondria throughout all compartments of the neuron. When mitochondrial membrane potential collapses in apoptotic or metabolically stressed cells, tmrm reagent is dispersed through the cell cytosol and. Review high resolution imaging of live mitochondria. State 3 respiration was initiated by addition of 1 mm adp. Both have been reported to inhibit respiration, with tmre being the more potent inhibitor. The dyes do not form aggregates in cell membranes and have minimal interaction with membrane proteins. Changes in fluorescence intensity after electrical stimulation were also observed with tmrm and tmre, rhodamine dyes with a more linear response than r123 to mitochondrial potential ehrenberg et al.
Labeling mitochondria with tmrm or tmre article in cold spring harbor protocols 20117. A n essential component of mitochondrial biogenesis is the regulation of mitochondria morphology and number within healthy cells by a dynamic balance of fission and fusion events. Nearly all of the available fluorescence probes used to assess m or ros are singlewavelength indicators. Tmre tetramethylrhodamine ethyl ester and tmrm tetramethylrhodamine methyl ester both dyes are structurally very similar to rhod 123. Mitochondrial membrane potential m plays different roles in a cell. Like jc1, tmrm and tmre are widely used for measuring mitochondrial membrane potential besides their selective mitochondrial staining. Tmremitochondrial membrane potential assay kit ab1852.
Upon loss of the mitochondrial membrane potential, tmrm accumulation will cease and the signal will dim or disappear. Tmre mitochondrial membrane potential assay kit fluorometric. Tmre mitochondrial membrane potential assay kit ab1852 is used for quantifying changes in mitochondrial membrane potential in live cells by flow cytometry, microplate spectrophotometry and fluorescent microscopy. The tmre protocol also uses fccp carbonyl cyanide 4trifluoromethoxy phenylhydrazone, which is a ionophore uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation. Imaging of mitochondrial and nonmitochondrial responses in. Labeling mitochondria with fluorescent dyes for imaging. Chazotte b 2011 labeling mitochondria with tmrm or tmre. The mitopt tmre assay detects mitochondrial membrane depolarization utilizing the fluorescent dye tmre. The specific cellular role of mitochondria is influenced by the surrounding environment because effective mitochondrial function requires the delivery of inputs e. Imaging of mitochondrial and nonmitochondrial responses. Tmre and tmrm can be used at relatively low concentrations for the specific staining of the mitochondria with no quenching effect 24, 29. Tmre mitochondrial membrane potential assay gbiosciences.687 380 137 1327 899 16 464 624 8 1033 1234 1492 85 1579 822 1441 554 13 464 478 1007 784 1209 1014 1581 891 540 1061 679 532 172 1496 1112 788 744 282 802 699 77 1398 618 1344 672