The concept and practice of umuganda was dormant for some period of time in postcolonial rwanda, but was revived and codified in public policy by the habyarimana regime in 1974. Ishyirwa mu bikorwa rya gahunda yigihugu yo gutera no gufata neza amashyamba ingingo ya 17. This practice was reinvented after the 1994 genocide against the tutsi by the. A culture of deference to authority was fostered, mistrust between communities took hold and individual or collective entrepreneurship had very limited space in which to express itself. Transitional justice, postconflict reconstruction and reconciliation in rwanda and beyond. On february 2, 1974, the president ordered that every rwandan perform unpaid collective work one day per week. The last saturday of every month between 7am and 12pm everything in rwanda stops. Rwanda where accounts of the 1994 genocide highlight state reach and oversight. Or at least all the restaurants keep closed, markets are not operating and public and private transportation is limited.
Expatriates living in rwanda are encouraged to take. They are distributed free of charge in pdf format via the rsc website. Today ubudehe is one of the countrys core development programs. In doing so, i consider the history of the ritual, its transformation in purpose over time, and the accompanying sociological consequences of such purposes and transformations. Umuganda is a traditional practice dating back in the precolonial period, however the idea behind it has changed, and today, the concept of this community work is to promote unity and reconciliation in a society that has. Rwandans between 18 and 65 are obliged to participate in umuganda. Resident persons an individual is considered to be resident in rwanda for tax purposes if that individual. This thesis analyses the policy and traditional practice of umuganda, which is a rwandan word for community work. The main purpose of the thesis is to investigate how to enhance the efficiency. I had been trying to coordinate and participate with my rwandan friend thierry for some time now. President kagame also called for the expeditious completion of the law on umuganda to make the exercise more effective. Rwanda institutionalized umuganda in its current form in 2009. Local government is enshrined in chapter 1 of the constitution and the main governing legislation is the organic law of 2005.
Notably, this practice was extended to those who were very poor or incapacitated to take part in collective action. Opinion in rwanda, on the last saturday of the month, there is a mandatory work fest from 7. Developing through communal labor the umuganda approach. In rwanda, ethnic twa are a small minority, making up 1 to 2 percent of the national population in both pre and postgenocide rwanda. A woman plays with her neighbors baby during the umuganda community meeting in kigali, rwanda.
Clark, philip and kaufman, zachary daniel 2009 after genocide. The program was established in 2009, and has resulted in notable improvement in the cleanliness of rwanda. The research, analysis and reporting for the rwanda nhdr 2017 will be centred around how hgs have impacted the policy making process and outcomes, and how this has contributed. The bill on umuganda is currently before the senate. Because community health workers chws are close to communities, both geographically and socially, they could potentially be responsible for a. Its compulsory for all ablebodied people ages 18 to 65, and the. Postconflict reconstruction and reconciliation in rwanda. In addition, an individual who stays in rwanda for more than 183 days in any. Umuganda rwandans unique culture umuganda, is a well known term here in rwanda, where the last saturday of each month is a national day of community service, during which all the business operations are put at pause so as the people of the nation come together being the men, women and children to participate in this event. This often includes infrastructure development and environmental protection. Digital umuganda building common digital infrastructure. Many authors have looked at umuganda, mainly focusing on the period from 1973 until the 1994 genocide something which has fostered a lot of negativity regarding the essence and practice of umuganda. Umuganda policy in rwanda 1 attachment shame on kagame who continues to claim that he insituted the umuganda policy in rwanda 14 years ago.
Rwanda governance board rgb ikigo cyigihugu gishinzwe imiyoborere. Umuganda policy in rwanda shame on kagame who continues to claim that he insituted the umuganda policy in rwanda 14 years ago. Despite this part of its history umuganda is also credited with assisting in reconciliation and peace building in rwanda following the genocide. This home grown solution has been adapted to the digital age to fit the current needs of a knowledge based economy. Participation in umuganda is required by law, and failure to participate can result in a fine. Rwandas ingando camps liminality and the reproduction of. I lit up at the idea, as i always do when i consider the idea of umuganda.
Umuganda in english kinyarwandaenglish dictionary glosbe. Bound hard copies of the working papers may also be purchased from the centre. Forced manual labor under ubureetwa was one of the strongest dividing factors of hutu and tutsi in colonial rwanda, and yet umuganda, a communal, though mandatory, manual labor system is considered instrumental in. In 2008, the program won the united nations public service award for excellence in service delivery. Past, present and future in the training of health professionals at the university of rwanda maaike flinkenflogel1, 2, patrick kyamanywa1, brenda asiimwekateera1, sanctus musafiri1, pierre claver. In 1998, with the efforts to rebuild rwandan society and nurture a shared national identity, the government of rwanda reintroduced umuganda. Everyone 18 to 65yrsold is expected to do yard work or help the community in some other way. The activities of the then umuganda included, for instance, farming for those who were unable to do so due to either physical handicap or old age, building. Umuganda takes place on every last saturday of the month and every household needs to send in one member over 18 years old to help the community 6. Modern day umuganda can be described as community work.
Umuganda is a practice that takes root from rwandan culture of selfhelp and cooperation, in traditional rwandan culture, members of the community would call upon their family, friends and neighbours to help them complete a difficult task. Gsr photo melanie lidman despite the positivity surrounding the day, most people said that they came because it was a government mandate, and if the government stopped requiring attendance, the tradition would probably fall apart. Millennium development goals rwanda final progress report. The recommendation is that umuganda be regarded as a local community initiative. Umuganda rwandans unique culture moztekphotography. Umuganda is a concept rooted in the rwandan culture of self help and cooperation. Umuganda is one of the traditional tools of mutual help rooted in. Umuganda for improved health professions education in rwanda. An overview of the practice of umuganda in precolonial rwanda, umuganda was a traditional practice and cultural value of working together to solve social and economic problems for mutual benefit. The initial policy was intended to advance economic development by requiring all adults to provide one day per week of unpaid labor, predominantly targeted to. Rather than discussing umuganda for a specific period, a wide look at its origins.
Rwanda is known as the land of a thousand hills, the rich soil, altitude and temperate climate means that most things grow naturally which puts the country in a solid position given the strong movement around the world toward organic products. Umuganda is a national holiday in rwanda taking place on the last saturday of every month for mandatory nationwide community work from 08. Rwanda has a diverse range of world class national parks. Rwanda is a democratic republic with two spheres of government, national and local. As part of efforts to reconstruct rwanda and nurture a shared national identity, the government of rwanda drew on aspects of rwandan culture and traditional. As part of the governments efforts to reconstruct and nurture a shared national identity, umuganda was reintroduced back to rwandan life in 1998. Umuganda for improved health professions education in. Traditionally this concept is being used for community engagement and collective efforts to build physical infrastructure in rwanda. The other reason for rwanda s tidiness, of course, is umuganda. Eleven regular national holidays are observed throughout the year, with others occasionally inserted by the government.
This research and presentation thereof considers the ritual umuganda in terms of its contribution to national identity. Months ago, i had caught him in the afternoon, after umuganda ends at 11. This was done as part of efforts to reconstruct rwanda and to nurture a shared national identity. These are all areas where the community development policy can make a. The ministry of local government minaloc oversees the local authorities, which are structured in four tiers. The author of the article bellow acknowledges that the umuganda policy was instituted by habyarimana in rwanda since 1974 re. It is a rwandan tradition that dates back to long before colonial. On the last saturday of each month, communities come together to do a variety of public works. Ubudehe is one of rwanda s best known home grown solution because of its participatory development approach to poverty reduction. Why is rwanda so clean umuganda day, on the 4th saturday morning the traffic stop, stores are closed, even visitors and all ablebodied rwandans pitch in, the streets are cleaned, drainage ditches dug, schools built, anywhere there is a need, there are a hundred, eager helping hands doing their part to make rwanda better. Impact umuganda is credited with contributing to rwanda s development, particularly in the areas of infrastructure development and environmental protection.
As part of efforts to reconstruct rwanda and nurture a shared national identity, the. Umuganda coming together in common purpose to achieve an. Umuganda nkuyu ni igikorwa kiri ku mutima urubyiruko ruhagarariye abandi benshi batashoboye gukora uyu muganda. This is to certify that soeurs oblates du saint esprit is a religiousbased organization legally operating in rwanda granted legal personality n. It wasnt until 1998 that umuganda was reintroduced to rwandan life. Unlike many other countries in africa, rwanda has been a unified state since precolonial times, populated by the banyarwanda people who share a single language and cultural heritage. The evidence in this case includes sociological analyses of the umuganda ritual itself. This study contributes to the body of knowledge on the nature and the evolution of umuganda in rwanda, thereby deepening the discussion about its future prospects.417 454 1434 311 386 1234 827 40 1541 373 945 1233 1140 336 527 1306 290 232 1232 181 779 55 1143 151 1069 673 163 475 401 1447 271 279 1135 104